Head of Education and Higher educatiin in The Iraqi Forum for Intellectuals and Academias
Makram A. Fakhri , A. Bouhemadou , R. Khenata , M. Ameri
Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) is a very important optical material which is widely used by the photonics industry due to its excellent electro/acousto-optical properties. LiNbO3 is an important ferroelectric material because of its excellent piezoelectrical, electrooptical, pyroelectrical and photo-refractive properties . It is widely used as polar material for photonic applications . In addition, it is employed in nonlinear optics for frequent conversion in telecommunication for electro-optic modulation . It is very attractive material for fabrication of optical wave-guide devices. This crystal plays an important role as a high quality source material with low optical loss due to their mechanical robustness, good availability, optical homogeneity, integrated optics with lasers, modulatorsand filters on a single LiNbO3 wafer.