Head of Education and Higher education in The Iraqi Committee Forum for Intellectuals and Academias
M.A. Fakhric, N. Badid,e, C.H. Voonc
Lithium Niobate (LN) is a very important optical material, which is widely used by the photonics industry, mainly dueto its excellent electro/acousto-optical properties . LN is also an important ferroelectric material, because of its excellentpiezoelectric, electro optical, pyroelectrical, and photo-refractive properties . It is widely used as a polar material forphotonic applications . In addition, it is employed in nonlinear optics for frequency conversion and telecommunicationfor electro-optic modulation . It is a very attractive material for the fabrication of optical waveguide devices. It ispromising for optical devices due to its mechanical robustness, good availability, optical homogeneity , integrated opticswith lasers, modulators , and filters on a single LN wafer . Nanophotonic LiNbO3has been studied for use in integratedform with unique pyroelectric, piezoelectric and nonlinear optical properties, which would make it an ideal materialfor the fabrication of surface acoustic wave (SAW) , optoelectronic and optical devices . LN photonic crystal wasprepared using various techniques such as sputtering , liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) , metal organic chemical vapordeposition (MOCVD) soft- chemistry, hydrothermal methods , and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) .This work reports on the production of LiNbO3nano and micro photonic crystal by using spin-coating technique. Thephase evolution with the Molar concentration was studied by using XRD; it is an important part of our work in seekingapplicability of LiNbO3nano and micro photonics in optical waveguides. We have looked at the effect of stirring time of∗mixtures used in the preparation of the nanophotonics and the effect of annealing temperature on the particles size, andstructural properties, to determine the most influential on the efficiency of the photonic nanostructures in optical waveguide.